Muses

The Surrealists

Surrealism originated in the late 1910s as a literary movement that experimented with a new mode of expression called automatic writing which sought to release the unbridled imagination of the subconscious, influenced by the studies of Sigmund Freud as well as Dadaism. In the aftermath of World War I, a group of individuals are thus eager to change the world through provocation, poetry and psychic experiences. Officially consecrated in Paris in 1924 with the publication of the Manifesto of Surrealism by the poet André Breton who dominates the group, Surrealism becomes an international dissident intellectual and political movement. André Breton, Louis Aragon and Paul Eluard are soon joined by visual artists such as Giorgio di Chirico, Francis Picabia or Max Ernst but also the director, Luis Bunuel whose provocative and erotic works seduce the authors. With his erotic and hallucinatory paintings, Salvador Dali is highly praised by André Breton with whom he collaborates on the review Minotaure, the Surrealist publication. While the movement is disturbed by political disagreements and bursting public splits, many Surrealists settle in New York during World War II thus influencing the emerging Abstract Expressionism, Action Painting and Pop Art. At least, the group weakened by its conflicts found an afterlife in contemporary movements.
 

Tags / The Surrealists - Art - Literature - Provocation - Tribes - Muses - 1920s
Surrealist exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery by Hansel Mieth, March 1939
Surrealist exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery by Hansel Mieth, March 1939
Man Ray, Self-portrait with the lamp, 1934
Man Ray, Self-portrait with the lamp, 1934
Philippe Soupault by Man Ray, Paris, 1923
Philippe Soupault by Man Ray, Paris, 1923
Frédéric Mégret by Man Ray, Paris,  1927
Frédéric Mégret by Man Ray, Paris, 1927
Johan Hagemeyer, Portrait of Salvador Dali, 1944
Johan Hagemeyer, Portrait of Salvador Dali, 1944
Surrealist exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery by Hansel Mieth, March 1939
Surrealist exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery by Hansel Mieth, March 1939
Joseph Cornell by Duane Michals, 1969
Joseph Cornell by Duane Michals, 1969
Michel Leiris, 1922
Michel Leiris, 1922
Tristan Tzara, René Crevel and Jacques Baron by Man Ray, 1922
Tristan Tzara, René Crevel and Jacques Baron by Man Ray, 1922
André Ostier, Portrait of Leonor Fini, 1947
André Ostier, Portrait of Leonor Fini, 1947
Yves Tanguy, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
Yves Tanguy, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
Salvador Dali, Gala, Paul Eluard, Nusch in Port Ligat, 1931
Salvador Dali, Gala, Paul Eluard, Nusch in Port Ligat, 1931
André Breton, Toyen (Marie Čermínová), Benjamin Péret by Elisa Breton, Île de Sein, 1947
André Breton, Toyen (Marie Čermínová), Benjamin Péret by Elisa Breton, Île de Sein, 1947
René Magritte, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
René Magritte, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
Man Ray, Portrait by Meret Oppenheim, 1932
Man Ray, Portrait by Meret Oppenheim, 1932
Leonor Fini, Trieste, 1928
Leonor Fini, Trieste, 1928
Marcel Marien – Muette et aveugle, 1945
Marcel Marien – Muette et aveugle, 1945
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Yves Tanguy, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Yves Tanguy, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
René Magritte and his wife Georgette Berger, c.1922
René Magritte and his wife Georgette Berger, c.1922
Man Ray, Portrait of Louis Aragon, 1925
Man Ray, Portrait of Louis Aragon, 1925
Raymond Queneau, Selfportrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1920s
Raymond Queneau, Selfportrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1920s
Paul Nougé, La Jongleuse, c. 1929-1930
Paul Nougé, La Jongleuse, c. 1929-1930
Kansuke Yamamoto, A Chronicle of Drifting, 1949
Kansuke Yamamoto, A Chronicle of Drifting, 1949
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Wolfgang Paalen, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Wolfgang Paalen, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by André Masson, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by André Masson, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
Man Ray, Self-portrait, 1924
Man Ray, Self-portrait, 1924
Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, 1920s
Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, 1920s
Guillaume Apollinaire in the Pablo Picasso’s studio, 1910
Guillaume Apollinaire in the Pablo Picasso’s studio, 1910
Man Ray, Portrait of Joyce Mansour, 1950
Man Ray, Portrait of Joyce Mansour, 1950
Brassaï, Portrait of Nusch Eluard, 1944
Brassaï, Portrait of Nusch Eluard, 1944
Man Ray, Portrait of Simone Breton, 1927
Man Ray, Portrait of Simone Breton, 1927
Nusch Eluard by Dora Maar, c. 1930s
Nusch Eluard by Dora Maar, c. 1930s
Leonor Fini by Dora Maar, c. 1936
Leonor Fini by Dora Maar, c. 1936
Jacques-André Boiffard, Self-Portrait, 1929
Jacques-André Boiffard, Self-Portrait, 1929
Irving Penn, Joan Miró on His House Roof, Montroig, Spain, 1948
Irving Penn, Joan Miró on His House Roof, Montroig, Spain, 1948
Musidora, 1920s
Musidora, 1920s
Gisèle Prassinos reading her Poems to the Surrealists, 1934. Photo by Man Ray
Gisèle Prassinos reading her Poems to the Surrealists, 1934. Photo by Man Ray
Marcel Duchamp behind his installation of Sixteen miles of string, 1942
Marcel Duchamp behind his installation of Sixteen miles of string, 1942
Salvador Dali and Gala by Brassaï, 1932
Salvador Dali and Gala by Brassaï, 1932
Man Ray, Self Portrait, 1936
Man Ray, Self Portrait, 1936
René Magritte The Giant by Paul Nougé, Ostende 1937
René Magritte The Giant by Paul Nougé, Ostende 1937
Paul Nougé, Coat suspended in space, c. 1929-1930
Paul Nougé, Coat suspended in space, c. 1929-1930
René Magritte and Georgette Berger,1932
René Magritte and Georgette Berger,1932
Alejandro Jodorowsky and Leonora Carrington, set designs /costumes by Leonora  Carrington, Mexico 1957
Alejandro Jodorowsky and Leonora Carrington, set designs /costumes by Leonora Carrington, Mexico 1957
Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia and Béatrice Wood, Coney Island, New York, 1917
Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia and Béatrice Wood, Coney Island, New York, 1917
Man Ray with his painting Mademoiselle H by Ida Kar, 1954
Man Ray with his painting Mademoiselle H by Ida Kar, 1954
Claude Cahun, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
Claude Cahun, Self-Portrait in a Photobooth, ca. 1929
Nusch Eluard by Dora Maar, c. 1930s
Nusch Eluard by Dora Maar, c. 1930s
Simone Breton, Gala Eluard, Max Ernst, Andre Breton, Robert Desnos, Paul Eluard and Joseph Delteil 1923
Simone Breton, Gala Eluard, Max Ernst, Andre Breton, Robert Desnos, Paul Eluard and Joseph Delteil 1923
Ugo Mulas, Enrico Baj´s Portrait on a Mirror, c. 1960
Ugo Mulas, Enrico Baj´s Portrait on a Mirror, c. 1960
Man Ray, Portrait of Michel Leiris, 1930
Man Ray, Portrait of Michel Leiris, 1930
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1938
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1938
Georges Malkine, Rene Crevel, André de La Rivière, Robert Desnos, André Lasserre by Man Ray, 1930
Georges Malkine, Rene Crevel, André de La Rivière, Robert Desnos, André Lasserre by Man Ray, 1930
Man Ray’s studio, 1925
Man Ray’s studio, 1925
Man Ray, Portrait by Meret Oppenheim, 1935
Man Ray, Portrait by Meret Oppenheim, 1935
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Yves Tanguy, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Yves Tanguy, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
Kansuke Yamamoto, Self Portrait, 1940
Kansuke Yamamoto, Self Portrait, 1940
Man Ray, Portrait of Elisa Breton
Man Ray, Portrait of Elisa Breton
Vicomtesse de Noailles Surrealist ball by Man Ray, Paris, 1929
Vicomtesse de Noailles Surrealist ball by Man Ray, Paris, 1929
Marie-Berthe Aurenche, Max Ernst, Lee Miller and Man Ray, 1931
Marie-Berthe Aurenche, Max Ernst, Lee Miller and Man Ray, 1931
Man Ray, Portrait of Max Ernst, 1935
Man Ray, Portrait of Max Ernst, 1935
Lee Miller by Man Ray with Sponge Necklace. 1930s
Lee Miller by Man Ray with Sponge Necklace. 1930s
Man Ray by Carl Van Vechten, 1934
Man Ray by Carl Van Vechten, 1934
Leonor Fini by Dora Maar, c. 1936
Leonor Fini by Dora Maar, c. 1936
E.L.T. Mesens in front of Magritte's canvas Clairvoyance, 1937
E.L.T. Mesens in front of Magritte's canvas Clairvoyance, 1937
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Maurice Henry, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Maurice Henry, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Léo Malet, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
International Exhibition Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Léo Malet, Paris, 1938. Photo by Man Ray
Salvador Dali by Arnold Newman, 1951
Salvador Dali by Arnold Newman, 1951
Man Ray, Portrait of André Masson, 1930
Man Ray, Portrait of André Masson, 1930
Antonin Artaud, 1926
Antonin Artaud, 1926
Francis Picabia in his studio, c. 1910-1915
Francis Picabia in his studio, c. 1910-1915
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Jean Arp, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
International Exhibition of Surrealism at Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Mannequin by Jean Arp, Paris, 1938. Photo by Denise Bellon
Stanley William Hayter, Leonara Carrington, Frederick Kiesler, Kurt Seligmann. Second Row: Max Ernst, Amedee Ozenfant, Andre Breton, Fernand Leger, Berenice Abbott. Third Row: Jimmy Ernst, Peggy Guggenheim, John Ferren, Marcel Duchamp, Piet Mondrian,
Stanley William Hayter, Leonara Carrington, Frederick Kiesler, Kurt Seligmann. Second Row: Max Ernst, Amedee Ozenfant, Andre Breton, Fernand Leger, Berenice Abbott. Third Row: Jimmy Ernst, Peggy Guggenheim, John Ferren, Marcel Duchamp, Piet Mondrian, "Artists in Exile", Peggy Guggenheim's apartment, New York, 1942.
Man Ray, Portrait of Luis Buñuel, 1926
Man Ray, Portrait of Luis Buñuel, 1926
Man Ray, Portrait of André Breton, 1930
Man Ray, Portrait of André Breton, 1930
Man Ray, Portrait of Meret Oppenheim, 1933
Man Ray, Portrait of Meret Oppenheim, 1933
Man Ray, Portrait of Antonin Artaud, 1926
Man Ray, Portrait of Antonin Artaud, 1926
Man Ray, Portrait of René Crevel, 1930s
Man Ray, Portrait of René Crevel, 1930s
Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1910s
Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1910s
Man Ray, Portrait of Joan Miro, 1934
Man Ray, Portrait of Joan Miro, 1934
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